Protein milkshakes, made from protein powder (center) and milk (left), are a common bodybuilding supplement.
Bodybuilders may supplement their diets with protein for reasons of convenience, lower cost (relative to meat and fish products), ease of preparation, and to avoid the concurrent consumption of carbohydrates and fats. In addition, some argue that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training and goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth; however there is no scientific consensus for bodybuilders to consume more protein than the recommended dietary allowance. Protein supplements are sold in ready-to-drink shakes, bars, meal replacement products (see below), bites, oats, gels and powders. Protein powders are the most popular and may have flavoring added for palatability. The powder is usually mixed with water, milk or fruit juice and is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising or in place of a meal. The sources of protein are as follows and differ in protein quality depending on their amino acid profile and digestibility:
Whey protein contains high levels of all the essential amino acids and branched-chain amino acids. It also has the highest content of the amino acid cysteine, which aids in the biosynthesis of glutathione. For bodybuilders whey protein provides amino acids used to aid in muscle recovery. Whey protein is derived from the process of making cheese from milk. There are three types of whey protein: whey concentrate, whey isolate, and whey hydrolysate. Whey concentrate is 29–89% protein by weight whereas whey isolate is 90%+ protein by weight. Whey hydrolysate is enzymatically predigested and therefore has the highest rate of digestion of all protein types. Whey protein is usually taken immediately before and after a workout 
Casein protein (or milk protein) has glutamine, and casomorphin. Casein is usually taken before going to bed.
Soy protein from soybeans contain isoflavones, a type of phytoestrogen.
Egg-white protein (known as albumin) is a lactose- and dairy-free protein.
Hemp protein from hemp seed, contains highly-digestible protein, and hemp oil is high in essential fatty acids.
Rice protein, when made from the whole grain, is a protein source that is highly digestible and allergen free. Since rice protein is low in the amino acid lysine, it is often combined with pea protein powder to achieve a superior amino acid profile.
Pea protein is a hypoallergenic protein with a lighter texture than most other protein powders. Pea protein has an amino acid profile similar to that of soy, but pea protein does not elicit concerns about unknown effects of phytoestrogens. Pea protein is also less allergenic than soy. Pea protein has high fiber content and has no allergic ingredients and therefore is easy for digestion as compared to whey protein. Pea protein is a slow digesting protein and is able to keep you full longer.
Shaker Bottle commonly used to mix supplements. Often has mesh or a metal whisk inside to breakdown lumps in the mixture.
Some nutritionists claim that osteoporosis may occur from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching. However, some have suggested that higher calcium excretion may be due to a corresponding increase in protein-induced calcium absorption in the intestines.
In addition to complete proteins, some supplements will contain protein that has been partially hydrolyzed to short peptide chains or individual amino acids (such as branched-chain amino acids or glutamine). Amino acids have been used by some companies to artificially inflate and falsify protein values in their product (protein spiking). Many protein supplements explicitly indicate on the label that no protein spiking has occurred.
Yes, protein supplements can help provide the body with the raw materials needed for muscle growth and recovery.
But they will not make up for “over training”. Your brother is breaking down his muscles faster then his body can
recover. What he needs is a rest. Obviously, I do not know his training or football schedule, but he needs to take at
least a full week off from working out to let his body rest and recover. Rest is the only way to get rid of the feeling of
being tired, weak, worn out, etc.
I personally take a week off from working out 3-4 times per year and I find that the rest break makes a world of
difference. When I come back after a week off from training I have lots of energy and am motivated to get back to